# Roman Numerals in Excel

You can convert between Roman numerals and regular Arabic numbers using the ROMAN and ARABIC functions.

## Regular (Arabic) numbers to Roman numerals

The ROMAN function takes a regular number and gives you the Roman equivalent. There is an additional parameter you can add, to control the appearance of the final Roman number:

=ROMAN(number, form)

The number is simply the number you want to convert (usually you’ll give the cell reference). You specify the form as a value from 0–4 or as a logical (TRUE or FALSE) like so:

- In general, the larger the number you use for form the more concise the final Roman numeral becomes.
- If you use 0 or don’t put any value for form you get the classic form.
- If you specify TRUE you get the classic form.
- If you specify FALSE you get the most consice form.

The Excel help entry for this function shows an example for 499 to illustrate the effect of altering the form parameter.

=Roman(499, form) |
Result |

0, TRUE or omitted | CDXCIX |

1 | LDVLIV |

2 | XDIX |

3 | XDIX |

4 or FALSE | ID |

## Roman numerals to regular (Arabic) numbers

Since Excel version 2013 you can convert a number in Roman form to a regular Arabic number; you use the ARABIC function. There is only one parameter, the number you wish to convert (usually you’ll give this as a cell reference). It does not matter what form the number is in (see above), it will be evaluated. The function is not case sensitive.

You can specify your number in any number of ways, not strictly in Roman form. As long as you use “allowable” Roman characters the ARABIC function will evaluate the result e.g.

=ARABIC(XXICD) produces 379 but the reverse, =ROMAN(379) is CCCLXXIX regardless of how concise you are.

The ARABIC function is available in Excel 2013 and Open Office 4.x (and Libre Office) but not in older versions.

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